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apache_frontend
===============

Frontend system using Apache, allowing to rewrite and proxy URLs like
myinstance.myfrontenddomainname.com to real IP/URL of myinstance.

apache_frontend works using the master instance / slave instance design.
It means that a single main instance of Apache will be used to act as frontend
for many slaves.

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Software type
=============

Apache frontend is available in 3 software types:
  * default : The standard way to use the apache frontend configuring everything with a few given parameters
  * custom-personal : This software type allow each slave to edit its apache configuration file
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About frontend replication
===========================

Slaves of the root instance are sent as a parameter to requested frontends which will process them. The only difference is that they will then return the « would-be published information » to the root instance instead of publishing it. The root instance will then do a synthesis and publish the information to its slaves. The replicate instance only use 5 type of parameters for itself and will transmit the rest to requested frontends.
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These parameters are :
  * "-frontend-type" : the type to deploy frontends with. (default to 2)
  * "-frontend-quantity" : The quantity of frontends to request (default to "default")
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  * "-frontend-i-state": The state of frontend i
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  * "-frontend-config-i-foo": Frontend i will be requested with parameter foo
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  * "-frontend-software-release-url": Software release to be used for frontends, default to the current software release
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  * "-sla-i-foo" : where "i" is the number of the concerned frontend (between 1 and "-frontend-quantity") and "foo" a sla parameter.
ex:
<parameter id="-frontend-quantity">3</parameter>
<parameter id="-frontend-type">custom-personal</parameter>
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<parameter id="-frontend-2-state">stopped</parameter>
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<parameter id="-sla-3-computer_guid">COMP-1234</parameter>
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<parameter id="-frontend-software-release-url">http://git.erp5.org/gitweb/slapos.git/blob_plain/refs/tags/slapos-0.183:/software/apache-frontend/software.cfg</parameter>
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will request the third frontend on COMP-1234. All frontends will be of software type "custom-personal". The second frontend will be requested with the state stopped
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Note: the way slaves are transformed to a parameter avoid modifying more than 3 lines in the frontend logic.
Important NOTE: The way you ask for slave to a replicate frontend is the same as the one you would use for the software given in "-frontend-quantity". Do not forget to use "replicate" for software type. XXXXX So far it is not possible to do a simple request on a replicate frontend if you do not know the software_guid or other sla-parameter of the master instance. In fact we do not know yet the software type of the "requested" frontends. TO BE IMPLEMENTED
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XXX Should be moved to specific JSON File
Extra-parameter per frontend with default :
ram-cache-size = 1G
disk-cache-size = 8G


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How to deploy a frontend server
===============================

This is to deploy an entire frontend server with a public IPv4.
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If you want to use an already deployed frontend to make your service available
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via ipv4, switch to the "Example" parts.
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First, you will need to request a "master" instance of Apache Frontend with:
  * A "domain" parameter where the frontend will be available
  * A "public-ipv4" parameter to state which public IPv4 will be used

like::
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  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
  <instance>
   <parameter id="domain">moulefrite.org</parameter>
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   <parameter id="public-ipv4">xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx</parameter>
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  </instance>
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Then, it is possible to request many slave instances
(currently only from slapconsole, UI doesn't work yet)
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of Apache Frontend, like::
  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
    partition_reference='frontend2',
    shared=True,
    partition_parameter_kw={"url":"https://[1:2:3:4]:1234/someresource"}
  )
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Those slave instances will be redirected to the "master" instance,
and you will see on the "master" instance the associated RewriteRules of
all slave instances.

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Finally, the slave instance will be accessible from:
https://someidentifier.moulefrite.org.
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About SSL
=========
Default and custom-personal software type can handle specific ssl for one slave instance.
IMPORTANT: One apache can not serve more than One specific SSL VirtualHost and be compatible with obsolete browser (i.e.: IE8). See http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/NameBasedSSLVHostsWithSNI
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#How to have custom configuration in frontend server
#===================================================
#
#In your instance directory, you, as sysadmin, can directly edit two
#configuration files that won't be overwritten by SlapOS to customize your
#instance:
#
# * $PARTITION_PATH/srv/srv/apache-conf.d/apache_frontend.custom.conf
# * $PARTITION_PATH/srv/srv/apache-conf.d/apache_frontend.virtualhost.custom.conf
#
#The first one is included in the end of the main apache configuration file.
#The second one is included in the virtualhost of the main apache configuration file.
#
#SlapOS will jsut create those two files for you, then completely forget them.
#
#Note: make sure that the UNIX user of the instance has read access to those
#files if you edit them.
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Instance Parameters
===================

Master Instance Parameters
--------------------------

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The parameters for instances are described at `instance-apache-input-schema.json <instance-apache-input-schema.json>`_.

Here some additional informations about the parameters listed, below:

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domain
~~~~~~
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name of the domain to be used (example: mydomain.com). Subdomains of this
domain will be used for the slave instances (example:
instance12345.mydomain.com). It is then recommended to add a wildcard in DNS
for the subdomains of the chosen domain like::
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  *.mydomain.com. IN A 123.123.123.123
Using the IP given by the Master Instance.
"domain" is a mandatory Parameter.

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public-ipv4
~~~~~~~~~~~
Public ipv4 of the frontend (the one Apache will be indirectly listening to)

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port
~~~~
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Port used by Apache. Optional parameter, defaults to 4443.
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plain_http_port
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~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Port used by apache to serve plain http (only used to redirect to https).
Optional parameter, defaults to 8080.
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Slave Instance Parameters
-------------------------
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The parameters for instances are described at `instance-slave-apache-input-schema.json <instance-slave-apache-input-schema.json>`_.
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Here some additional informations about the parameters listed, below:
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path
~~~~
Only used if type is "zope".

Will append the specified path to the "VirtualHostRoot" of the zope's
VirtualHostMonster.

"path" is an optional parameter, ignored if not specified.
Example of value: "/erp5/web_site_module/hosting/"

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apache_custom_https
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Raw apache configuration in python template format (i.e. write "%%" for one "%") for the slave listening to the https port. Its content will be templatified in order to access functionalities such as cache access, ssl certificates... The list is available above.
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NOTE: If you want to use the cache, use the apache option "ProxyPreserveHost On"
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apache_custom_http
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Raw apache configuration in python template format (i.e. write "%%" for one "%") for the slave listening to the http port. Its content will be templatified in order to access functionalities such as cache access, ssl certificates... The list is available above
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NOTE: If you want to use the cache, use the apache option "ProxyPreserveHost On"
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url
~~~
Necesarry to activate cache. url of backend to use.
"url" is an optional parameter.
Example: http://mybackend.com/myresource

domain
~~~~~~
Necesarry to activate cache. The frontend will be accessible from this domain.
"domain" is an optional parameter.
Example: www.mycustomdomain.com

enable_cache
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Necesarry to activate cache.
"enable_cache" is an optional parameter.

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ssl_key, ssl_crt, ssl_ca_crt
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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SSL certificates of the slave.
They are optional.

Functionalities for apache configuration:
In the slave apache configuration you can use parameters that will be replaced during instanciation. They should be entered as python templates parameters ex:" %(parameter)s"
  * cache_access : url of the cache. Should replace backend url in configuration to use the cache
  * error_log : path of the slave error log in order to log in a deferenciated file.
  * error_log : path of the slave access log in order to log in a deferenciated file.
  * ssl_key, ssl_crt, ssl_ca_crt, ssl_crs : path of the certificates given in slave instance parameters


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Examples
========

Here are some example of how to make your SlapOS service available through
an already deployed frontend.
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Simple Example (default)
------------------------
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Request slave frontend instance so that https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234 will be
redirected and accessible from the proxy::
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  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
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    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
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    partition_reference='my frontend',
    shared=True,
    partition_parameter_kw={
        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
    }
  )


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Zope Example (default)
----------------------
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Request slave frontend instance using a Zope backend so that
https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234 will be redirected and accessible from the
proxy::
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  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
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    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
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    partition_reference='my frontend',
    shared=True,
    partition_parameter_kw={
        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
        "type":"zope",
    }
  )


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Advanced example 
-----------------
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Request slave frontend instance using a Zope backend, with Varnish activated,
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listening to a custom domain and redirecting to /erp5/ so that
https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234/erp5/ will be redirected and accessible from
the proxy::
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  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
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    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
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    partition_reference='my frontend',
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    shared=True,
    partition_parameter_kw={
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        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
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        "enable_cache":"true",
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        "type":"zope",
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        "path":"/erp5",
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        "domain":"mycustomdomain.com",
    }
  )

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Simple Example 
---------------
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Request slave frontend instance so that https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234 will be
  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
    partition_reference='my frontend',
    shared=True,
    software_type="custom-personal",
    partition_parameter_kw={
        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
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        "apache_custom_https":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias example.org
  ServerAdmin geronimo@example.org
  SSLEngine on
  SSLProxyEngine on
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234/$1 [L,P]',
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        "apache_custom_http":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias www.example.org
  ServerAlias example.org
  ServerAdmin geronimo@example.org
  SSLProxyEngine on
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On
  # Not using HTTPS? Ask that guy over there.
  # Dummy redirection to https. Note: will work only if https listens
  # on standard port (443).
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234/$1 [L,P],
    }
  )

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Simple Cache Example
--------------------
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Request slave frontend instance so that https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234 will be
  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
    partition_reference='my frontend',
    shared=True,
    software_type="custom-personal",
    partition_parameter_kw={
        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
	"domain": "www.example.org",
	"enable_cache": "True",
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        "apache_custom_https":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias www.example.org
  ServerAlias example.org
  ServerAdmin geronimo@example.org
  SSLEngine on
  SSLProxyEngine on
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) %(cache_access)s/$1 [L,P]',
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        "apache_custom_http":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias www.example.org
  ServerAlias example.org
  ServerAdmin geronimo@example.org
  SSLProxyEngine on
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On

  # Not using HTTPS? Ask that guy over there.
  # Dummy redirection to https. Note: will work only if https listens
  # on standard port (443).
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) %(cache_access)s/$1 [L,P],
    }
  )


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Advanced example 
-----------------
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Request slave frontend instance using custom apache configuration, willing to use cache and ssl certificates.
listening to a custom domain and redirecting to /erp5/ so that
https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234/erp5/ will be redirected and accessible from
the proxy::
  instance = request(
    software_release=apache_frontend,
    software_type="RootSoftwareInstance",
    partition_reference='my frontend',
    shared=True,
    software_type="custom-personal",
    partition_parameter_kw={
        "url":"https://[1:2:3:4:5:6:7:8]:1234",
        "enable_cache":"true",
        "type":"zope",
        "path":"/erp5",
        "domain":"example.org",
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  	"apache_custom_https":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias www.example.org
  ServerAdmin example.org
  SSLEngine on
  SSLProxyEngine on
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  SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
  SSLCipherSuite ECDH+AESGCM:DH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:DH+AES256:ECDH+AES128:DH+AES:ECDH+3DES:DH+3DES:RSA+AESGCM:RSA+AES:RSA+3DES:HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5
  SSLHonorCipherOrder on
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  # Use personal ssl certificates
  SSLCertificateFile %(ssl_crt)s
  SSLCertificateKeyFile %(ssl_key)s
  SSLCACertificateFile %(ssl_ca_crt)s
  SSLCertificateChainFile %(ssl_ca_crt)s
  # Configure personal logs
  ErrorLog "%(error_log)s"
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  LogLevel info
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  LogFormat "%%h %%l %%{REMOTE_USER}i %%t \"%%r\" %%>s %%b \"%%{Referer}i\" \"%%{User-Agent}i\" %%D" combined
  CustomLog "%(access_log)s" combined
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On
  # Redirect / to /index.html
  RewriteRule ^/$ /index.html [R=302,L]
  # Use cache
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) %(cache_access)s/VirtualHostBase/https/www.example.org:443/erp5/VirtualHostRoot/$1 [L,P]',

    "apache_custom_http":'
  ServerName www.example.org
  ServerAlias www.example.org
  ServerAlias example.org
  ServerAdmin geronimo@example.org
  SSLProxyEngine on
  # Rewrite part
  ProxyVia On
  ProxyPreserveHost On
  ProxyTimeout 600
  RewriteEngine On
  # Configure personal logs
  ErrorLog "%(error_log)s"
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  LogLevel info
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  LogFormat "%%h %%l %%{REMOTE_USER}i %%t \"%%r\" %%>s %%b \"%%{Referer}i\" \"%%{User-Agent}i\" %%D" combined
  CustomLog "%(access_log)s" combined
  # Not using HTTPS? Ask that guy over there.
  # Dummy redirection to https. Note: will work only if https listens
  # on standard port (443).
  RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ https://%%{SERVER_NAME}%%{REQUEST_URI}',
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    "ssl_key":"-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
XXXXXXX..........XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----",
    "ssl_crt":'-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
XXXXXXXXXXX.............XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
-----END CERTIFICATE-----',
    "ssl_ca_crt":'-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
XXXXXXXXX...........XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
-----END CERTIFICATE-----',
    "ssl_csr":'-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.............XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
-----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----',
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    }
  )
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Notes
=====

It is not possible with slapos to listen to port <= 1024, because process are
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not run as root.

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Solution 1 (IPv4 only)
----------------------
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It is a good idea then to go on the node where the instance is
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and set some iptables rules like (if using default ports)::
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  iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d {public_ipv4} --dport 443 -j DNAT --to-destination {listening_ipv4}:4443
  iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d {public_ipv4} --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination {listening_ipv4}:8080
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Where {public ip} is the public IP of your server, or at least the LAN IP to where your NAT will forward to.
{listening ip} is the private ipv4 (like 10.0.34.123) that the instance is using and sending as connection parameter.
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Solution 2 (IPv6 only)
----------------------
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It is also possible to directly allow the service to listen on 80 and 443 ports using the following command:

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  setcap 'cap_net_bind_service=+ep' /opt/slapgrid/$APACHE_FRONTEND_SOFTWARE_RELEASE_MD5/parts/apache/bin/httpd
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Then specify in the instance parameters "port" and "plain_http_port" to be 443 and 80, respectively.